Global warming and other factors are expected to affect the availability and security of food profoundly. They will reduce crop yields, reduce food availability, and decrease the quality and safety of our food. Changing climate patterns will disrupt the flow of food from the fields to our homes. Furthermore, food prices are expected to increase, and the risk of food spoilage and contamination. In some regions, climate change is already reducing crop productivity.
Increased temperatures can significantly affect crop yields, depending on their optimal temperature for growth and reproduction. Some crops are better suited to higher temperatures, while others will suffer a decline in output. In some places, drought may also become a challenge. In these regions, increased irrigation may be needed. In other sites, water supplies may decrease, and food crops could suffer.
Impacts of climate change on fisheries
Climate change and its consequences on agriculture, food, and marine fisheries are two key sectors that sustain global food security and employment. These sectors are significantly affected by climatic change and are projected to worsen as greenhouse gas emissions rise. Adaptability to climate change and other factors influence a country’s ability to respond to the consequences of climate change.
Fish provides essential amino acids and other essential nutrients lacking in staple foods. The effects of climate change on fisheries can be categorized into two categories: physical and biological. Physical changes include increased water surface temperature, and biological impacts include changes in the distribution and biology of fish. Rising water temperatures disrupt physiological processes and cause diseases in fish.
The severity of the effects of climate change on food security is complicated by factors such as lack of data and poor environmental governance. Several studies have examined the consequences of climate change on fisheries and agriculture. An intense mitigation scenario is comparable to achieving the Paris Agreement, and most countries would experience net gains in their agricultural and fishing production. The key to reducing the vulnerability of societies to climate-related impacts is to implement timely mitigation and adaptation measures by major CO2 emitters.
Impacts of climate change on the fishing industry
The effects of climate change on the fisheries sector are complex and likely to vary from region to region. Fishing is a small socioeconomic sector and cannot stand alone against processes that affect food security and food sovereignty. However, the impacts on fisheries will complement the contributions made by other sectors in national poverty-reduction efforts. There is a need for a multi-sectoral approach to managing climate change and food security.
The governance system of fisheries affects the conservation of their resource bases. The UN Fish Stocks Agreement (UNFSA) entered into force in 2001 and covered highly migratory stocks. Despite the UNFSA, the governance of fisheries has been poor. Regional fisheries management organizations remain the central coordination bodies for fisheries. However, little cooperation has been achieved among regional institutions and global provisions.
The Philippines recently hosted a high-level roundtable on the effects of climate change on fishing livelihoods and food security. The roundtable focused on a new study released by the United Nations World Food Program. This study examines the interconnectedness between climate change and food security and highlights these two issues’ potential threats and opportunities. The study’s key findings will help policymakers, and other stakeholders formulate policies to address these issues.
In the Philippines, fisheries contribute to food security and economic development. Increasing sea levels, ocean acidification, and frequent and intense weather events have been linked to climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and researchers have studied the effects of climate change on fisheries in the Philippines. Climate change will reduce the Philippines’ marine capture fisheries by about 18%. In turn, declining fish populations will affect food security and the Philippines’ economy.
The Philippines face a rash of challenges, including overfishing, toxic waste and oil spills, typhoons, and red tide, a form of upwelling of nutrients from the seafloor. Consequently, the quality and quantity of staple crops will decrease. As a result, the Philippines suffers from food shortages and poor health. According to a recent study, 21% of Filipinos are underweight, and 32% are stunted in height.
In the Philippines, climate change is already hurting the fishing industry, and El Niño exacerbates its effects on the Philippines’ agriculture. In 2017, the Philippines had the highest observed rate of sea-level rise, 60 centimeters, which is three times the global average. This would put the livelihoods of more than 13.6 million Filipinos at risk.
This negative impact on the fishing industry could lead to overfishing and overexploitation. The country needs to plan for the future and implement resiliency measures for the industry. Climate change impacts on the fishing industry are likely to be felt for a long time, so the country needs to be prepared and take measures to combat them.